Background: The prevalence rate for colorectal cancer is found to be 9% worldwide. Studies have found out that people in developed western countries are more prone to colorectal cancer due to their low fiber food habits and sedentary life-styles. Herbal medicines, thus plays an important role in treatment of colorectal cancer. Cassia alata is one such plant having constituents like quercetin, Chrysoeriol etc. which has found to have anticancer activity.
Methods: Ethanolic extraction of Cassia alata leaves was carried out using Soxhlet apparatus and extract was standardized. Acute toxicity was carried out according to OECD guidelines. In in vivo studies, colorectal cancer was induced by administering Dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) intraperitoneally to male wistar rats for 20 weeks. Aberrant crypt foci count, colon length by weight ratio, liver index hematological and histological markers were the noted parameters.
Results: Cassia alata extract(CAE) was standardized by HPTLC. Upon oral administration of 2 g/kg, Cassia alata leaves extract (CAE) to female rats, mortality was not observed, and animals did not show any signs and symptoms of toxicity. Upon treatment for four weeks the rats did not show any cumulative toxicity profiles. Hematological parameters showed significant differences between the groups. In ACF count and colon length by weight ratio, there was significant difference found. In histopathological examination, it was found that there was formation of dysplasia in Standard and Posttreatment and malignancy was found in disease control and co-treatment group.
Conclusion: DMH produced tumors in the rats and by histopathological examination, it was found that Cassia alata leaves extract was not able to reduce inflammation and dysplasia. So, considering the findings from the present study, it can be concluded that ethanolic extract of Cassia alata leaves has failed to reduce tumors in DMH induced colorectal cancer model.
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