Statement of the Problem: According to the recent experimental data the activation of inflammasomes is associated with inflammation process and contributes to tumor growth and progression. Therefore inflammasomes are perspective molecular targets for anti-inflammatory therapy which are able to increase the efficiency of existing schemes of cancer treatment. In this connection the purpose of this study is to estimate the expression and localization of ASC and Caspase-1 in tumor and stromal (microenvironmental) cells for assessment of the inflammasomes activation status in non-small cells lung cancer (NSCLC). Methodology: Patients with first-time diagnosed NSCLC (55 to 70 years old) were included in the study. Expression and localization inflammasomes components (ASC and Caspase-1) in tumor and stromal cells were assessed by four-color confocal microscopy (LSM780NLO, Carl Zeiss, Germany) using of anti-CK7, anti-TMS-1 (anti-ASC) and anti-Caspase-1 antibodies. Findings: The research showed that 67% of patients had co-expression and co-localization of ASC-1 and Caspase-1 in tumors, which is evidence of the activation of inflammasomes. Furthermore, in 17% of cases, active inflammasomes were detected only in tumor cells, in 17% of cases – only in stromal cells, in 33% cases – both in tumor and stromal cells. In 33% of cases, the components of inflammasomes neither in tumors nor in stromal cells were absent. The quantity of the tumor cells with activated inflammasomes was 2,15 (0-4,84) %, stromal cells – 2,28 (0-5,97) %. Thus, inflammasomes are able to become active not only in immune microenvironmental cells but also in epithelial tumor cells. This research was supported by grant of the President of the Russian Federation MD-273.2017.7.